Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is found in all living cells within the body. Like the other B-vitamins, vitamin B5 plays a role in energy metabolism, acting as a coenzyme to energy-producing chemical reactions. It plays a role in the synthesis of fat, hormones, and carbohydrates that we take in from the foods we eat, turning them into usable energy that the body uses in many ways. The energy that vitamin B5 helps to produce, is what fires the neurotransmitters in your brain. This vitamin improves cardiovascular health, synthesizes cholesterol, metabolizes food into energy, maintains healthy nerve function, improves mental performance, helps control the body’s stress response, helps wound healing, helps with symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, aids in immune function, helps fight acne and protects skin health. The daily requirement for vitamin B5 are about 10 milligrams, and the maximum recommended dose is about 10 grams. A deficiency of B5 is very uncommon. The most common side effect of pantothenic acid deficiency is generalized malaise. Side effects can also include irritability, insomnia, vomiting, depression, stomach pains, burning feet and upper respiratory infections. Since vitamin B5 is water soluble, excess is simply filtered by the body and flushed away by the urinary tract, there is very little concern about overdosing. Very high doses of vitamin B5, 10 to 20 grams per day, have been found to cause diarrhea, though.